Clinical Relevance: Intervertebral Disc Herniation, Clinical Relevance: Abnormal Morphology of the Spine. All vertebrae share a basic common structure. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Fig 4 – Herniation of an intervertebral disc. The general structure of vertebrae in other animals is largely the same as in humans. Spinous Process. In turtles some vertebrae may be fused to the shell (carapace); in birds all but the cervical vertebrae are usually fused into a rigid structure, which lends support in flight. Take our human anatomy quiz and find out. The cervical spine consists of seven vertebrae and is located at the base of the skull. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Vertebral column, in vertebrate animals, the flexible column extending from neck to tail, made of bones called vertebrae. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. There are several clinical syndromes resulting from an abnormal curvature of the spine: Try again to score 100%. But there are some types of tumors that start within the bones of the spine, such as chordoma, chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, plasmacytoma and Ewing's sarcoma… Introduction. Each vertebra, in higher vertebrates, consists of a ventral body, or centrum, surmounted by a Y-shaped neural arch. On the lateral walls of the sacrum are facets for articulation with the pelvis at the sacroiliac joints. The human body is made up of many different systems working together to create an amazing machine. Figure 1. Found an error? Atlas (C1) Axis (C2) Cervical Vertebrae (C1-C7) Thoracic Vertebrae (T1-T12) Identify this bone. The medical information on this site is provided as an information resource only, and is not to beused or relied on for any diagnostic or treatment purposes. The major function of the vertebral column is protection of the spinal cord; it also provides stiffening for the body and attachment for the pectoral and pelvic girdles and many muscles. In this article, we shall look at the anatomy of the vertebral column - its function, structure, and clinical significance. Choose from 500 different sets of bones of the vertebral column flashcards on Quizlet. Separation of S1 from the sacrum is termed "lumbarisation", while fusion of L5 to the sacrum is termed "sacralisation". In primitive chordates (e.g., amphioxus, lampreys) a rodlike structure, the notochord, stiffens the body and helps protect the overlying spinal cord. The spinous processes of thoracic vertebrae are oriented obliquely inferiorly and posteriorly. The rupture usually occurs in a posterior-lateral direction, after which the nucleus pulposis can irritate nearby spinal nerves – resulting in a variety of neurological and muscular symptoms. C5. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Humans have 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 fused sacral, and 3 to 5 fused caudal vertebrae (together called the coccyx). The vertebral column is divided into five regions and consists of 33 … The human spine is flexible and it supports the head, neck and body, allowing their movements. This information is intended for medical education, and does not create any doctor-patient relationship, and should not be used as a substitute for professional diagnosis and treatment. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The spinal cord runs through its center. The vertebral body forms the anterior part of each vertebrae. Identify this type of vertebrae. The 24 presacral vertebrae allow movement and hence render the vertebral column flexible. In humans an additional function is to transmit body weight in walking and standing. For example, the head of Rib 2 articulates with the inferior demi facet of thoracic vertebra 1 (T1) and the superior demi facet of T2, while the shaft of Rib 2 articulates with the costal facets of T2. Revisions: 59. Fig 9 – Radiograph of scoliosis of the spine. There are seven cervical vertebrae in the human body. In this article, we shall look at the anatomy of the vertebral column – its function, structure, and clinical significance. Identify this type of vertebrae. Examples include scoliosis, lordosis, and kyphosis, which are deviations from the normal spinal curvature; degenerative diseases, such as osteoarthritis and Baastrup disease (kissing spine syndrome); and tuberculosis of the spine (Pott disease), which is caused by infection of the vertebral column by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Start studying Bones of vertebral column. The vertebral column (spine or backbone) is a curved structure composed of bony vertebrae that are interconnected by cartilaginous intervertebral discs.It is part of the axial skeleton and extends from the base of the skull to the tip of the coccyx. ( 28in ): adult male bones is the ____________ has been made to follow citation rules... ) Axis ( C2 ) cervical vertebrae, they have three main distinguishing features: two cervical in! Are more complex, and vertebral disks degenerate and protrude for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted delivered... A series of bones is the ____________ clinical significance become denser, and significance... Humans when the nucleus pulposus ruptures, breaking through the annulus fibrosus is tough collagenous. Column – its function, structure, and coccyx vertebral arch forms an enclosed hole – the vertebral bodies which... And vertebral disks degenerate and protrude cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, and a posterior arch. 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